A simple makefile consists of rules with the following shape
target … : dependencies …
A target is the name of a file that is generated by a program; examples of targets are executable or object files. A target can also be the name of an action such as clean, install, configure.
Continue reading How to write a Makefile?
The nameserver is a program that matches an IP address say (192.168.0.244) to a hostname say (test.linuxnepal.com.np). It also provides for matching in the opposite direction as well, informing you that the machine that has the address 192.168.0.244 is called test.linuxnepal.com.np.
To setup the Domain Name Server, following files and directories have to be handled.
1. /etc/resolv.conf (File)
2. /etc/named.conf (File)
3. /var/named (Directory)
Continue reading DNS Quickie
File ownership is a prime component for Linux to provide a secure method to maintain files in a file system. Every file in Linux has the following attributes:
* Owner permissions
* Group permissions
* Other (World) permissions
The owner’s permission is granted to the current owner of a file or directory.
The group’s permission is granted to a set of users, who is a member of the group that a file belongs to and can perform on the file. The other’s permission is granted to all users.
Continue reading Owners, Groups and Permissions
It is a software program designed to act as an interface between a user
and the computer. It controls the hardware, manages the system resources
and supervises interaction between the system and its users.
Functions of Linux:
i) Command Interpreter:
The operating system interprets the command i.e. input instruction
user and translates its to the machine language. Similarly, it also
the result of a command i.e. output from the machine to the language,
user understands. This is known as command interpretation.
Continue reading Linux Basics
Linux has grown its popularity so much in the recent years that, it has increased its worldwide users many fold and that number is growing each day. Still, the people (at least in Nepals context) are not able to understand the word free in the context of Linux. People are not able to appreciate the real free thing in Linux.
Continue reading Free Linux
What operating system do you use? I will not wait for an answer, it is almost sure to be win9x (win95 and win98 yes I know that win2k is also there but well it is not that popular in Nepal and thus is out of the equation). The popularity of windows accounts for the name of Microsoft as the sole provider of operating system software and availability of pirated windows CD (well computers assemblers here in Nepal are happy to load it for you at no extra charges). But arent you sick of all those this program has performed an illegal operation and those cryptic and blue screen fatal errors officially known as BSOD (Blue Screen Of Death), or you want to be adventurous and try something better. Well there are alternatives to windows even if you think them to be none-existent. Well to name a few Solaris, HP-Unix, QNX RTOS (Real Time Operating System) , OS/2, BeOS and of course my personal favorite Linux. Linux is the only operating system today that has the technical capabilities and scalability to challenge windows on Intel platform. Initially Linux was considered to be a networking operating system fit for small ISPs but as Linux has honed itself and is creating waves in the desktop market. Many companies are using Linux for mission critical tasks instead of Windows NT, Novell Netware or other expensive operating systems.
Continue reading Linux OS
Running programs: Multitasking and Sessions
To run a program, type its name as you would do under DOS. If the directory where the program is stored is included in the PATH the program will start. Exception: unlike DOS, under Linux a program located in the current directory won’t run unless the directory is included in the PATH.
You can type multiple command with; as the separator like:
$ command1; command2; ….;commandn
Continue reading Linux and Dos Comparision